The essential elements required for human body are carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins and water. Vitamins are one of the essential element of our body, they required by our body for proper functioning, maintaining and development. These vitamins are of various types and from various sources we can obtain them. All types of vitamins are necessary for body in different-different ways. The commonly known vitamins are:-
- Vitamin ‘A’
- Vitamin ‘B’ complex ( vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12)
- Vitamin ‘C’
- Vitamin ‘D’
- Vitamin ‘E’
- Vitamin ‘K’
These are the presently known vitamins. They can be classified in to a category based on their solubility.
- Water-soluble vitamins- Vitamin ‘B’ and Vitamin ‘C’.
- Fat-soluble vitamins- Vitamin ‘A’, Vitamin ‘D’, Vitamin ‘E’ and Vitamin ‘K’.
The basic description of all the vitamins is necessary to know their individual function in our body.
Vitamin ‘A’- Vitamin A is also known as retinol. Vitamin A is required mainly for immune function, cell regulation, vision, growth and development. Vitamin A can be obtained from Carrots, green vegetables, mangoes, golden rice etc.
Vitamin ‘B’- Vitamin B is a complex of many vitamins.
- B1 (Thiamine), causes BERIBERI.
- B2 (Riboflavin), causes anemia, sore throat and inflammation of skin etc.
- B3 (Niacin), causes PELLAGRA.
- B5 (Pentothenic Acid), causes fatigue, insomnia, irritability and lethargy etc.
- B6 (Pyridoxine), causes dermatitis, neuropathy, epilepsy, and depression etc.
- B7 (Biotin), causes hair loss and skin problems
- B9 (Folic Acid), if deficient in pregnant woman causes fetal neural defect.
- B12 (Cobalamin), causes pernicious anemia.
Vitamin ‘C’- Vitamin C is required for proper growth of mucus membranes and skin development and the sources of vitamin C are mainly citrus fruits like oranges, amla, mangoes, and tomatoes etc.
Vitamin ‘D’- Vitamin d is mainly required for development of bones. It can be directly obtain from sun exposure through skin and with calcium through food.
Vitamin ‘E’- Vitamin E is mainly responsible for proper reproduction process, deficiency of it causes infertility. The richest sources of vitamin E are fishes, dry fruits, oats, salmon and fruits etc.
Vitamin ‘K’- Vitamin K is required for blood clotting, it’s deficiency lead to delayed clotting of blood. The sources of vitamin K are green leafy vegetables, like spinach, turnip, parsley and lettuce, fish, liver, eggs and cereals etc.